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Honey mushrooms include several species of mushrooms that are united by habitat, namely, that they usually grow on tree trunks. Summer mushroom is one of the common mushrooms that are eaten.
How mushrooms look like summer mushrooms
The size of the hat reaches 6 cm in diameter. In a young fruiting body, it is convex, and when growing older, it becomes flat with a central tubercle. During rain, the color turns brown, and in dry weather, dull honey. The edge of the cap with clearly visible grooves, usually darker than the central part. The top layer is smooth to the touch and slightly mucous.
At the bottom of the cap are thin plates that can be grown or slightly descending. The older the mushroom, the darker the color of the plates. The flesh of the cap is watery and pale yellow-brown.
A thin leg with a height of not more than 7 cm has a dense structure. Color uneven: in the upper part is lighter than at the base. In addition, there are small dark scales at the bottom. For young individuals, the presence of the rest of the bedspread in the form of a thin ringlet, which disappears with time, is characteristic.
Places and rules for collecting summer mushrooms
The very name of the mushrooms tells where to look for them. Mushrooms related to parasites settle in colonies on felled or rotten tree trunks. On one rotten stump, you can collect more than one basket of crops. They hit up to two hundred species of trees, often climbing up to 4 meters high.
The summer mushroom picking season begins in June and continues until the beginning of autumn. Mushrooms are found in all forest plantations in Russia. Experienced mushroom pickers go looking for a crop after prolonged rains, especially if the weather is warm. Most often honey mushrooms settle in hard-to-reach or inaccessible places. If a tree with a rotten hollow comes across, it is recommended to look into it, otherwise you can skip a whole nest of fungi.
Summer mushrooms, in addition to fallen trees and clearings, can settle on healthy wood or at the base of the tree, in leaves or tall grass. Mushrooms love birch, oak and hazel.
Varieties of honey mushrooms
In order not to return from a quiet hunt empty-handed, it is recommended to go for mushrooms into the forest that exceeds 30 years of age, since its forest has many places suitable for honey mushrooms: windbreak, rotten stumps, protruding root system. It is important to adhere to the established rules for collecting forest gifts:
- Do not cut unfamiliar or unfamiliar mushrooms;
- if there are suspicions about the edibility of the fungus, it is better not to pick it;
- it is not recommended to collect very young or, conversely, old specimens, since the fruiting body absorbs toxic substances during growth;
- it is desirable to twist the tubular view, and marsupials to break or cut;
- picking a mushroom it is important not to cause mycelium damage;
- since honey agarics grow in colonies, when one mushroom is found, you should carefully search nearby;
- instead of a bucket, it is recommended to take a basket to provide air access and avoid spoilage of mushrooms;
- put mushrooms in a basket with their caps down or sideways.
It is best to go for mushrooms in the early morning, while their freshness and density has not yet lost after a cool night. Fruit bodies are not fragile, but easily bendable, which facilitates their transportation.
Description of the taste and nutritional value of summer mushrooms
Fruits are classified into 4 categories of taste. Their soft and pleasant taste, as well as the delicate aroma of fresh wood, is appreciated in Russian cuisine. Universal mushrooms are used in the preparation of any dishes, since heat treatment does not affect the nutritional properties. Feet is not recommended because of their rigidity.
Having studied the properties of honey mushrooms, experts came to the conclusion that this is not only a tasty product, but also healthy.
How to distinguish summer mushrooms from false species of mushrooms
Among representatives of the mushroom kingdom, there are inedible individuals similar to their edible relatives, not only in appearance, but also in places of growth. To prevent a poisonous specimen from being in the basket with summer mushrooms, It is important to know some differences:
- an edible mushroom is characterized by the presence on the leg of a ringlet (skirt) formed from a protective film, which, as the maturation grows, the tear-off separates from the cap, remaining on the leg;
- on the surface of the cap of natural representatives (except for old individuals) there are small scales painted in a darker palette than the cap;
- the color of the surface film of hats of false individuals is much brighter and depends on the location of the fungus;
- the color of the plates in twins is slightly green, yellowish or dark olive, in summer honey agarics are beige-cream or light yellow, depending on the age of the fungus;
- unlike the moldy smell exuded by inedible species, real mushrooms have a pleasant aroma.
Given the signs of edible mushrooms, even a novice mushroom picker will be able to distinguish false specimens from forest mushrooms.
Where honey mushrooms grow
Features of growing summer mushrooms at home
Honey mushrooms are a natural product that is cultivated in an artificial environment. There are several methods of cultivation that do not need special preparation, using:
- a package;
- greenhouses or open areas.
For self-cultivation, only winter and summer species of honey mushrooms are suitable. When using wood, it is important to adhere to the following rules:
- The trunk should have a dense structure, but not rotten (birch, aspen, poplar) with a diameter of 15 cm or more;
- Provide sufficient humidity. If the material for mushroom cultivation is dry, then several days before sowing, it should be abundantly watered or immersed in water;
- After sowing, bring the trunk into a cool room (not lower than 15 ° C);
- As soon as the mycelium begins to germinate intensively, the wood can be taken out to the site and slightly buried with earth;
- You can pick mushrooms after a couple of years, until the wood is completely destroyed;
- To obtain mycelium, you can use fruits, wood pieces or purchase mycelium in specialized stores. To store it, it is recommended to use a refrigerator.
If you want to breed mushrooms in a personal plot, wood is usually used. At the same time, labor costs are very low. In addition, on your own, you can grow mushrooms in a greenhouse or in a jar. In the case of using a greenhouse, the following technology is used:
- logs prepared in advance are placed in the greenhouse;
- wood is infected with mycelium using spores or mycelium;
- before the appearance of fungi, the wood is constantly moistened.
In addition to the tree, you can use the substrate blocks, purchased ready-made, or banks or packages. If desired, blocks can be made independently from a mixture of sawdust, barley (oats) with chalk. It is necessary to take 200 g of sawdust, 70 g of cereal and a teaspoon of chalk. Then boil the sawdust in water for a third of an hour, drain and dry. After that add the remaining ingredients, mix and place tightly in a container. This method is usually used for the cultivation of winter mushrooms.
To grow summer mushrooms, territories with a large area are not required. Enough 15-20 square meters. m. Regardless of the place chosen, it is important to maintain a temperature regime that varies from 20-25 ° C to 10-15 ° C. By maintaining a high level of humidity, you can increase the rate of mycelium development. Mushrooms are not demanding for lighting, therefore, in an open area, it is better to choose a shady place so as not to overdry the wood.
How to cook mushrooms
Due to the unpretentiousness of honey agarics and simple care, many mushroom pickers decide to grow them at home. The breeding technology is selected depending on the living conditions and available funds. In addition, this type of mushroom is very tasty and can be stored for a long time without losing its properties.