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To grow Beijing cabbage (petsai) is possible for any vegetable grower, it is important that the gardener knows that Chinese cabbage has its own characteristics. This vegetable has been recognized in different countries for its nutritional qualities and ease of cultivation. The culture is diverse, various varieties can be grown from spring to late autumn.
Different varieties of Chinese cabbage
Chinese cabbage is a highly productive and precocious vegetable; it is profitable to cultivate it even in winter in greenhouse conditions. The growing period is short, so during the summer season it is easy to get several harvests of a healthy product.
Cultivating Chinese cabbage, it is worth using different varieties of vegetables, a varied choice will help to avoid bad shoots or poor-quality planting material. Most often, Russian gardeners plant Bokal, Michel, Bilko, Lyubasha and others on their plots of Chinese cabbage.
Bokal Chinese leaf cabbage grows in 70 days, a head of vegetable reaches 2 kg. The peculiarity of this species is that the plant is resistant to stalking (the appearance of flower stems). The Bilko variety belongs to early ripening species, is resistant to various diseases, it is rarely affected by pests.
It is worth highlighting the Chacha variety - a very early species, this Chinese cabbage, the cultivation and care of which does not require special efforts, can be obtained 45 days after sowing. The plant has a universal purpose, grows up to 3 kg. Peking vegetable called Michelle also belongs to the early ripening species. The first head of cabbage is formed 35–40 days after the appearance of sprouts above the surface of the earth. The form of the aforementioned vegetable is elongated, like a cylinder. From a mature product, wonderful salads are obtained, you can ferment, pickle and stew.
The cultivation of Beijing cabbage
Planting and cultivating Beijing cabbage
Given the different ripening times of plants, sowing seeds for seedlings or in the soil, vegetable growers produce at different periods. In open ground, planting material is lowered from late April to early June. The interval between sowing is 15-20 days. The second sowing is best done from the end of July to August 10-15.
In the spring, experts propose to sow mainly lettuce varieties of vegetables; in the summer, those species that form heads of cabbage grow better. The optimum temperature at which the culture effectively grows and develops is + 15 ... + 22ºС. The main problem that spoils the yield of the plant is the shooting and flowering of the vegetable. In order to avoid trouble, you should follow the rules of cultivating crops. Chinese cabbage should have a short daylight hours, crops need to be thinned out in a timely manner, and when choosing a variety of cabbage, it is important to pay attention to its resistance to flowering.
When breeding petsai, you should know that seedlings must be prepared from March. If a full-fledged plant is planned to be obtained by autumn, then the seeds are sown in late June. Not everyone can know how to grow seedlings, which substrate is suitable for this plant.
It is most convenient to prepare seedlings in individual containers, for example, in peat pots. The plant does not like transplantation and takes root in a new place for a long time. Vegetable soil should be loose and fertile. The substrate is prepared from turfy soil and well-rotted humus. Planting material is lowered into the ground to a depth of 0.5-1 cm, the soil is carefully moistened with a spray gun. Blanks should be covered with foil and put away for 2-4 days in a warm place. Good planting material should germinate through the indicated period.
Seedlings that appear above the ground must be set in a well-lit place, plants should be moistened at the moment when the top layer of the soil becomes dry. The readiness of plantings for transfer to a permanent place of growth is determined by appearance; the bushes must have at least 4 true leaves.
The area where Chinese cabbage is planned to be grown should be fully lit, the holes in it are prepared at a distance of 25-30 cm from each other. For each well, 300 g of compost and 100 g of wood ash are allocated. Additives are mixed with the ground, then the hole is well moistened with warm water, then a plant is lowered into it. You need to know, planting does not like acidic soils, lime will help get rid of such an incident.
The best climate in which cabbage is growing actively, proper lighting, timely hydration and relative coolness are all that cabbage needs. At air temperatures below + 13 ... + 14ºС, the culture stops in development. Heat above 25 ° C also has a bad effect on the state of Beijing cabbage. Non-woven shelter periodically helps farmers to save crops during unexpected frosts, and on sultry days shelters plants from the scorching sun.
14-15 days after transplanting seedlings into the wells, the soil under the plants is mulched, this technique helps to get rid of weeds, in addition, after mulching, the necessary moisture is retained in the substrate. The culture needs periodic top dressing, the best fertilizers are infusions of different herbs, an aqueous solution of mullein or bird droppings. For a better ovary, the petsai are irrigated with an aqueous solution of boric acid. For the entire growing season, plantings are fed twice. During weeding, it is necessary to ensure that the apical bud on the plant does not turn out to be covered with soil.
Plant diseases and pests
Cruciferous flea and slugs are the main pests of Chinese cabbage. You can protect cabbages from pests with the help of covering material, experts do not recommend using pesticides. Wood ash can be an effective remedy against cabbage pests. It is mixed in equal proportions with snuff and showers are planted at any convenient time. Tomatoes, garlic, petunia and potatoes scare off the flea well, they are planted next to Chinese cabbage.
Culture diseases are infrequently infrequent, but preventive measures against diseases should be carried out regularly. You can not grow a crop in those areas where cruciferous plant species, such as radishes, turnips, cross salad, were cultivated in the previous season. Good predecessors for Chinese planting are legumes, tomatoes or beets.