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Planting plums in spring is not difficult even for novice gardeners. The presented material is an easy-to-understand and detailed guide, including simple techniques for planting, growing, and caring for a plant. The collected advice from experienced gardeners will make it easy to understand agricultural technology, the choice of variety and the neighborhood undesirable for plums.
Rules for planting and caring for plums in the open field
To get high yields, you must follow the rules for planting and growing plums. Growing a tree is not easy, it takes desire, patience and hard work.
Need to know:
- what timing is suitable for planting;
- how to prepare the ground to please the sink;
- what size should be the pit for planting;
- why it is important not to deepen the root collar;
- how to properly cultivate and care.
Features of the root system of plum
The root system of a plum has its own characteristics that must be taken into account when planting, growing and subsequent care.
- It consists of skeletal (up to 5–8 cm) and overgrown (up to 0.3 cm thick) roots.
- Most of them lie in the ground horizontally at a depth of 20–40 cm. Only individual roots penetrate 60–80 cm. Closer to the root collar, they reach the surface of the earth.
- Skeletal roots ensure the stability of the plum, its strong bond with the ground. Often the root system extends beyond the crown projection.
- Overgrowing roots ensure the absorption of mineral solutions from the soil. The growth of shoots, leaves and fruits depends on how developed this part is.
- Good development of the root system is facilitated by timely care: watering, the correct feeding schedule, loosening the topsoil.
- Plum forms a large number of root suckers. This is one way to grow the variety.
What is the root system of a plum
To successfully grow and care for a crop, you must have at least some knowledge of botany.
From the school course, everyone knows about the existence of two types of root: pivotal and fibrous, but in fact, the underground part of the tree is much more complicated. Despite belonging to one of these species, their form and direction of distribution can be completely different. All trees have a taproot, and plums are no exception. But, not only the main part is developed in it, but also the lateral part, expressed more than the core.
How plum roots grow
For planting and growing plums, it is important for the gardener to know how the root of the plant is located underground (both vertical and horizon).
Attention! Proper care of the plum depends on this, especially the treatment of the top layer of the earth, when it is important not to damage the suction roots.
The underground part occupies the surface horizon of the soil layer at a depth of 15 to 60 cm. A small number of roots grow vertically and reach a depth of 1.5–2 m. If a tree grows in arid steppe regions, they sometimes penetrate to a depth of 4.5 m.
The horizontal roots of an adult, 30-year-old plum may be 10 meters from the stem. Their length is 2 or even 3 times the radius of the crown.
The depth of the roots of cherries and plums
The root system of a sweet cherry penetrates to a depth of 40-60 cm, at a plum this figure is 60-80 cm. In the garden, they do not favor each other, they adjoin at a distance of 5 m. The horizon of the underground part of a sweet cherry is from 15 to 30 cm, at a plum the upper the roots are located at a distance of 15 to 40 cm. The structure of the roots of these plants is identical. The indicator of the required groundwater depth is also practically the same - 1.5–2 meters.
How to plant a plum
Many summer residents are afraid to root a seedling in the fall, fearing that it will not have time to take root and freeze out. This will not happen if you properly prepare the soil, choose a variety and apply fertilizers when planting plums.
Choosing the right variety
The success of the future harvest largely determines the compliance of the plum variety with the climatic conditions of growth. It is worth giving preference to zoned varieties intended for cultivation in a specific region.
When choosing a tree for planting, the following characteristics are taken into account:
- ripening period;
- resistance to low temperatures;
- fruiting level;
- susceptibility to major diseases.
When growing one variety, only self-fertile varieties of plum give a high yield. For the rest, pollinating varieties are needed, for example, Skorospelka red. Plums of central Russia are distinguished by large sweet fruits, good yields and frost resistance.
Plum varieties for the central regions of Russia:
Productivity - up to 30 kg, very beautiful crown in the form of a leaf. The variety is not only winter-hardy, but also tolerates drought well. Ripens at the end of August. The weight of one fruit is 40 g, the taste is sweet and sour.
The variety is sensitive to cold weather, but recovers quickly. Fruiting - 4 years after planting. Productivity - 15 kg from one tree. The fruits are fragrant, medium sweet. Self-fertile variety.
The tree is compact in shape, begins to bear fruit in the fourth year. The variety is resistant to frost and disease. Large-fruited, weighs from 30 to 60 g, tasty. Maturity reaches mid-July. One of the best varieties of plums for planting and growing in the Moscow region. The variety is self-fertile.
The variety is frost-resistant. Ripens at the end of August, begins to bear fruit in the 5th year. Fruits are ovoid, small. The pulp is juicy, amber in color, very sweet. Self-fertile. After planting, it does not require complex maintenance.
When to plant plums: in spring or autumn
It happens that during the autumn planting, the plum does not have time to take root and later dies. In winter, it is difficult to track the further development of the plant and eliminate the problems that have arisen. When choosing a particular season for planting plums, they are guided by the peculiarities of the climate of the region.
Important! Plum seedlings should be planted in the spring if there are severe temperature changes in winter, during which the plant may die.
Plum planting dates in spring
Experienced gardeners recommend planting plums outdoors in spring, April or early May. Although the threat of frost has not yet passed, the earth has warmed up, and the root system will take root well. Such a plum will survive without any particular complications for it. It is important at this time to provide the drain with protection from the cold wind. It is necessary to plant a plant in a hole dug out before winter and in a prepared, fertilized soil. This will make growing and aftercare easier.
Plum planting dates in autumn
If you plan to plant plums in the fall, the best period for this is from September 20 to October 20 (deadline), one month before the onset of cold weather. At this time, the underground part of the plum is strong, it is not afraid of damage, but it may not endure severe winter frosts. Therefore, it is worth covering the plum from winter frosts for the winter (it is good to mulch, cover with spruce branches).
Planting in the southern regions is good in the second decade of October. The plum will have time to settle in the ground before the cold weather, the soil will securely grip the roots, and moisture will remove all voids. Winter in the south is warm, more like autumn, so the seedling overwinters without hassle, and most importantly, it will have time to adapt to the onset of hot weather.
In the northern territories, planting in the fall is risky and difficult. The plum will need additional care: it will be necessary to shovel snow to it, whitewash the trunks so that the bark does not crack. You can tie them with special material or paper, but this is costly. Even if the trees have overwintered, they can be destroyed by the spring flood. Therefore, the best time to plant seedlings in the north is spring. Growing and caring in this case will not cause unnecessary trouble.
Is it possible to plant plums in summer
Summer heat is destructive for trees with shallow root systems. Plum planting in late spring and summer is highly undesirable. If, nevertheless, there are reasons to do this, one must be prepared for the fact that there will be no harvest this year, and subsequent cultivation and care will be difficult.
Where is it better to plant a plum on the site
When planting a plum, you need to fulfill the required conditions: choose the right place for planting and take into account its biological characteristics.
- Plum cultivation should be done in places where there are no cold east and north winds, on gentle slopes.
- You can not shade it with tall trees and outbuildings.
- The main underground part of the drain is superficial, so it is important that the underground water does not come close to the top layer of the earth where it grows.
- You should not plant a plum in a low-lying area where a lot of water and snow accumulates.
- Plum soil loves fertile, light and neutral (pH 5.5-6). If the soil is acidic, it must be neutralized with dolomite flour or lime (every 4 years).
- When cultivated, pollinating varieties are located at a distance of 3 meters from the planted plum.
Can a plum grow in partial shade
If the plum falls into the partial shade of a tree or fence for a short time of light, this is not bad. In summer, the temperature sometimes reaches record levels, and the sun fire can burn not only the leaves, but also the trunk of the plum. Then such protection is a real salvation for the plum. In winter, such care shelters from the icy wind.
Important! If the plum is constantly shaded by tall trees or buildings, this is bad for its development. When grown, the plum is pulled out, its trunk is bent, the yield is significantly reduced.
At what distance to plant a plum from the fence
The root system of the plum over time can begin to destroy nearby buildings, sometimes, unfortunately, strangers. Neighbors complain that the shadow of a plum planted close to the fence shades their planting, and the plum itself covers the area with leaves and fruits. For this, there are sanitary norms and rules (SNiP) for the optimal planting of trees and shrubs. The instruction clearly defines the distance from the fence to a bush or a low tree (SNiP 30-02-97) at two meters, tall - 3 m. This is important both from the point of view of fire safety, and for growing and care.
Next to what you can plant a plum
The ecosystem of garden plots is usually represented by a rich variety of varieties of fruit trees. To obtain stable yields, it is important that it is in balance, and in order to maintain it, it is necessary to know the characteristics of each plant species. Many trees secrete inhibitors - substances that inhibit crops growing nearby, some are even capable of transmitting diseases. It is in everyone's power to create a garden in which the trees will be good neighbors, favorably affecting each other.
Is it possible to plant one plum
Some plum varieties are self-fertile, but even for them a pollinator is desirable.
If there is no possibility of growing another plum nearby, it is recommended to plant the desired pollinator variety in the crown.
Advice! In the most extreme case, you can ask a neighbor for a branch of a blossoming plum, place it in a bottle of water and fix it on the crown of a tree. Pollination will take place and the plum will yield a harvest.
Good neighbors for the plum
- The apple tree gets along well with the plum. On this score, there are opposite opinions, but you can often see plum and apple trees growing nearby and hear stories of experienced gardeners about the rich harvests obtained from such a neighborhood.
- Black elderberry saves the plum from aphids.
- If space permits, then to increase the yield of plums, it is worth planting a maple nearby, however, he will have to regularly cut the crown.
Can a plum be planted next to a cherry
Plum and cherry get along well together and protect each other from disease. They can be planted close, but so that the crowns do not touch.
How plum and cherry grow nearby
Growing plums between cherries and cherries is not recommended. She is “friendly” with cherries, but not very good with cherries. Their rhizomes lie in the same horizon and, if the cherry is more powerful, it will displace the underground part of the plum from the humus into the infertile lower layers. This will significantly weaken the drain. They are planted at a distance of 5 meters from each other.
Neighborhood plum and currant
Black currants, like plums, do not like any neighborhood. The currants will not fight for a place in the sun, as they feel good in the shade, but the underground part grows strongly and enters into a struggle with the root system of the plum. They will oppress each other, so growing and caring will be difficult.
The situation is better with planting a number of red currants - non-aggressive and livable. Its rhizomes are located at an average depth, so there will be no strong competition for nutrients.
Attention! Growing shrubs next to trees is undesirable. Plum runs the risk of contracting a fungal infection, which are often found in bushes (raspberries, for example).
Is it possible to plant a plum next to an apple tree
The apple tree is a versatile plant and gets along with almost all trees in the garden, including the plum.
Plum and raspberry neighborhood
Both plum and raspberry have a superficial root system, and there is a constant war between them for nutrient solutions. In terms of the speed of spreading through the garden, raspberries are a real aggressor, they can grow and eat everywhere and harm the plum great, intertwining with its roots and depleting the soil under it.
At what distance to plant a plum from a pear
The pear has a strong root system, powerful, up to 5 meters wide crown, in height it reaches 15 m. Pear is perhaps the most light-loving of all fruit trees. Such power near the plum will not withstand for a long time. In the struggle for the sun, it will fail, but thanks to the surface horizon of the roots, it will suck out all the nutrients from the humus. And the plum also tends to provoke diseases to which pears are prone. Planting these crops should be further apart from each other, at a distance of 6 meters.
Neighborhood of plum and peach
Peach is a lonely tree, it cannot stand any neighbors. This culture is gentle and requires care. She is uncomfortable near the plum, since both plants are susceptible to many diseases.
Plum and honeysuckle compatibility
Honeysuckle grows well next to the plum. A small shrub feels comfortable and is not afraid of light plum shading. Growing is possible at a distance of 2 meters from each other.
Is it possible to plant different varieties of plums next to each other
Many varieties of plums are self-fertile, which means that for pollination and obtaining a good harvest, you will need one more, or better several simultaneously flowering varieties of this culture.
Important! It is believed that it is not worth mixing the plantings of the western plum (Russian) with the Manchurian representatives - the Chinese, Amur plum and their hybrids.
What can be planted under the plum
The trunk circle of the plum can be covered with lawn turf. Bent grass, white clover, meadow bluegrass, or fescue work well. Growing bulbous, primroses, celandine is favorable under the plum.
Do not plant near a plum
The plum does not treat all representatives of the flora well.
- Does not like plums, pears, raspberries, black currants, does not get along well with plantings of sea buckthorn and cherry.
- Growing next to a birch (even decorative) is contraindicated. It will suck all the water out of the soil, and the plum will die.
- It will not tolerate the plum of the neighborhood with walnut plantings. It is a natural herbicide containing juglone, which, once it gets into the ground from the leaves, will destroy all vegetation under its crown.
- Do not allow cultivation next to the plum of anemone - a weed on which a rust fungus develops. This mushroom has many houses and a plum may be next.
How to choose a plum sapling
In order for the seedling to take root well and turn into a productive plum, and caring for it was not problematic, you need to take care of the quality of the planted material before planting.
First of all, it is recommended to carefully examine the tree. Not worth buying if:
- damaged or broken shoots;
- they are wired and smeared with mud;
- the trunk is damaged by hail;
- dried or rotten seedling, with moldy areas;
- there were thickenings on the rhizome or brown spots, similar to foci of black cancer;
- the site of inoculation is curved and crooked;
- brown roots, drooping, dying off;
- there are useless ramifications close to the ground;
- the stem has defects and bifurcation.
For planting, one-year or two-year seedlings are suitable (they will take root better).
When buying, be sure to examine the root system. It should be of normal color and have a branched structure. They look at the aerial part: the better it is developed, the more roots there should be. An annual plant should have 3-4 skeletal roots of 25-30 cm and side shoots.
You also need to inspect the vaccination site:
- Is it completely covered with bark?
- is it very low (normally 10 cm).
Only if these rules are observed, planting and growing plums will be successful, and care will be easy and pleasant.
What kind of soil does plum like
Plum is a moisture-loving tree. Its bark and wood do not hold water well, the roots are located in shallow, surface horizons, where the water regime is unstable, therefore, cultivation should take place in lowered areas, where it is possible to maintain normal humidity with the help of irrigation. Waterlogging should not be allowed. The groundwater level should be no higher than two meters from the surface of the earth.
Important! The soil should be fertile, permeable, and retain moisture well. Plum grows poorly on heavy, saline soils. If there is a surface standing of groundwater, it will fall ill with chlorosis and quickly die.
What fertilizers are applied when planting plums
Every gardener is able to improve the composition of the soil in which he will grow plums. The landing site is dug onto a full bayonet of a shovel with the simultaneous introduction of organic matter and minerals into it. This is done in mid-autumn, in October. The purpose of digging is to saturate the soil with oxygen.
For 1 sq. m. of area is contributed by:
- mullein (3-5 kg), humus or compost (8-10 kg);
- superphosphate (40-50 g);
- potassium nitrate (20-30 g).
On highly acidified lands, liming is carried out using dolomite flour, ash or lime. 800 g of the substance is scattered over the surface on 1 m². 15 kg of humus, 200 g of superphosphate, 40 g of potash fertilizer and 0.5 kg of lime per 1 m² are added to the loam.
Advice! Before planting plums, the soil is left under steam for a year and nothing is planted there. The weeds are weeding.
How to plant plums in spring: step by step instructions
With plantation (deep) plowing of the land, planting pits can be small in size - 60 cm deep and 50 cm in diameter, only for placing the roots. With normal, shallow processing, planting holes are dug with a depth of 70 centimeters and a diameter of about 1 m.
If the soil layer is fertile and saturated with air, contains a lot of humus, and is biologically active, then the plum will grow strong, with a powerful crown. This means that the distance between the plums during planting should be maximum - 5 m.In the case of planting plums on a hill in unenriched soil between them - no more than 3 m.
When planting plants on the site, they adhere to a certain algorithm of actions:
- If the seedlings were stored in a winter trench, they are carefully released and placed in a liquid nutrient mixture of earth with a mullein.
- They dig a hole 70 cm deep and about a meter in diameter.
- A high peg is driven into the center of the pit to fix the tree.
- A layer of soil is poured onto the bottom with a mound (the soil for planting plums is mixed in advance with humus and mineral fertilizer). The hill is made higher in order to prevent the burrowing of the seedling when the earth shrinks.
- The condition of the rhizome is assessed, damaged roots are cut to a healthy part of the plant.
- The tree is placed so that its root collar is 5–7 cm above the level of the ground surface. This is done using a flat rail or a shovel cutter placed across the pit.
- The roots are spread over the mound so that they do not rest against the side walls of the pit, but are located freely.
- The rhizome is covered by 10-15 cm and 3 buckets of water are poured into the pit. The earth will soften, and water slurry will fill the voids around the roots.
- They fill up the pit to the top and no longer water it. After planting, the soil will drop with the seedling, and the root collar will be exactly where it should be.
- For convenience, they land together. One sets up a seedling and spreads the rhizome, the other covers the ground.
- Make a hole for watering. The top layer is airy, loose.
- The plum is tied to a peg loosely, with a figure eight. They are tied tightly only after a month, when the earth finally subsides.
- If the peg is high, part of it is cut off so that it does not interfere with the seedling (at the level of the lower skeletal branch).
- Mulch the soil around (you can use peat).
Is it possible to deepen the root collar of a plum
Sometimes novice gardeners take the grafting site, located 15 centimeters above the rhizome, for the root collar. If a plum is planted in the ground to such a depth, it does not bear fruit well and may die.
For the correct planting of plums, you need to know: the root collar is the place where the trunk ends and the root begins. It is easy to spot by color. Wipe the stem and the upper part of the rhizome with a damp cloth. The transition point from green to brown will be the root collar. It is contraindicated to deepen the neck. What happens in this case:
- from the contact of the soil with the trunk, the latter damp;
- the plant begins to rot gradually, it becomes lethargic and it seems that the seedling does not have enough moisture; after watering, the situation is even more aggravated;
- the bark dies off, metabolic processes are disrupted;
- the plum dies.
Nuances of planting plums in autumn
Plums are planted in autumn not earlier than September 15 and not later than the end of September. If autumn is very warm and frost is not expected in the next month, the planting period can be extended until mid-October. The choice of planting material in the season is large and you can save on the purchase. Planting is done according to the spring scheme, but no fertilizers are added to the ground.
Planting closed-rooted plums in spring
Seedlings with an open root system (ACS) are placed together with the rest of the earth in a thick film, moistened and put up for sale. They are planted in the fall or buried in until spring.
Closed root seedlings (CCS) are sold in containers filled with soil (artificial soil). They are more expensive, but they have their own advantages.
- If a seedling with ACS is not intended for storage at all, then it can be stored with the ground for a long time. A rather mature plum is being purchased.
- Trees with ACS are planted only at certain times, and plums with ACS will take root perfectly at any time of the year (except for hot summer days).
- When planted in open ground, the root system does not suffer.
- Since the ZKS is well developed, the timing of flowering and fruiting comes earlier.
- A seedling with ZKS is convenient for transportation.
The landing is simple:
- They dig a hole a little more than an earthen coma, in which the plant is placed. Drainage is done.
- Carefully place the rhizome with the ground in the pit.
- The voids are filled with earth mixed with fertilizer (superphosphate, ash).
- Water abundantly for several days. Mulch.
Do I need to prune a plum sapling when planting
When digging out young plums in the nursery, the roots are injured and chopped off. The communication between the feeding systems of the root and the ground part is disrupted. To establish a normal ratio of parts of the plant, after planting, the branches are pruned. Moreover, the more roots are chopped off, the more intensively the crown is trimmed. It can be reduced by a third or even half. The lateral branches from above are cut off stronger than the lower ones, the weak ones are not cut off at all. Without proper care, the plum will not bear fruit abundantly.
How to feed a plum after planting
The drain must be cleaned correctly and systematically.
At the time of planting, the first feeding is carried out. Humus is introduced into the planting pit - 5 kg; peat in the same amount, superphosphate, ash.
It alkalizes the soil, especially acidic, which has a beneficial effect on cultivation.
In the second year, the plum is fed with urea (urea).
Young plums are fed 2 times a season - in mid-May and June. Any type of top dressing is used: scatter granules (20 g of carbamide per 1 sq. M.) Or apply foliar dressing. The solution is prepared in accordance with the instructions.
In the third year, the plum is fed: at the beginning of May - with urea (for a bucket of water - 30 g of carbamide), at the beginning of June - with nitrophobic (for a bucket of water - 4 tablespoons of the substance), at the beginning of August they are fed again with a mixture of potassium salt and superphosphate (2 tbsp l. per 10 liters of water) 3 buckets of nutrient composition are poured under the drain.
With minerals, it is effective to use organic matter for growing and care. In the third year after planting, add mullein solution. It is insisted for 10 days, diluted with water (0.5 liters of infusion per bucket of water) and poured under the drain.
Watering plum seedlings after planting
During the summer, plum care includes mandatory watering once a week. 30 liters of water are poured under one sink. In order not to erode the humus, irrigation is used for two hours.
If the summer is very hot and dry, the plum is watered more often, if it is rainy - correspondingly less often. In the second year of plum cultivation, irrigation and watering is carried out according to need and weather conditions.
Sprinkling is a useful option for summer plum care. Young trees bathe in summer heat and warm autumn weather. Spraying in summer is carried out only in the evening. Sprinkling seedlings hardens them and prepares them for temperature extremes. The shower starts in the evening and ends in the early morning. After watering, the near-trunk circle is mulched with sawdust, needles, peat.
How to transplant a plum
Often, due to redevelopment of the garden or an unsuccessful choice of a planting site, the plum must be transplanted. This must be done, minimally traumatizing the plum. It is best to transplant the plant up to 4 years old (good survival rate). For the autumn transplant, the pit is prepared 20 days before that, for the spring - in the fall. Drainage (expanded clay, broken brick) is poured at the bottom of the pit, then covered with compost and earth on top.
When is it better to transplant plums: in spring or autumn
You can transplant the culture both in spring and in autumn, the main thing is that the plum has time to take root before the onset of cold weather or heat. In early spring, the growing conditions are changed in April, until the juices have gone, but the earth has already warmed up. Later, a transplant is carried out from the end of September to October 20. Plum of winter-hardy species can be replanted as soon as the snow melts.
How to transplant a plum in the spring to a new place
The best time for transplanting a plum is the beginning of spring, until the buds begin to grow, before sap flow.
- First, a place is selected where the plum will be grown. It should be sunny and sheltered from the wind.
- If the plum is supposed to be transported far, the roots are wrapped in a dense film or mat. An adult plum is placed in a box made of planks.
- After transportation, the underground part of the drain is evaluated. Everything that has rotted, dried up and broken off is removed, the cuts are processed with ash.
- If the rhizome is dry, it is briefly placed in water.
- The root collar is not deepened during transplantation.
- The pit is covered with garden soil and watered, then mulched.
Transplanting plums to a new location in the fall
For the autumn plum transplant, the most suitable month will be October. The air temperature at this time is already low, but the ground has not yet frozen, which means that the plant has the opportunity to let young shoots into the warm soil. The treatment includes mulching the trunk circle to protect the young root from the cold.
How to transplant a young plum in spring
Before transplanting, within a radius of 30–40 cm from the trunk, the top layer of soil is removed and the resulting groove is poured with water to allow the earthen coma with roots to become limp. You can even shake a young plum slightly. After softening the soil under the root, if necessary, put a lag - a kind of lever - and pull out the plum. After transplanting, the earth is not trampled down, just watered. The tree is tied up, the soil is mulched.
How to transplant an adult plum
A fruiting plum, which is more than 7 years old, is transplanted together with an earthen lump 70 cm high with a diameter of 1 m. It is planted in a prepared hole at the same planting depth. Thoroughly spill water, and when the soil settles a little, add more earth.
An adult plum is secured on both sides with ropes for stability. After that, the space remaining around the drain is filled with a nutrient mixture: 50% of rotted manure, 20% of sand and 30% of the top layer. The grooves are tamped and filled with water. The bases of the branches are tied with sacking and moistened with water for a month.
You can transplant a plum without an earthen coma. A tree is placed in the dug hole, ground mixed with humus is poured on it (carefully so as not to bend the roots), carefully watered and spacers are placed so that it does not fall. Subsequent care - mulching with a layer of 10 cm.
How to dig up a plum for a transplant
The first step is to determine what size the earthen lump dug out with the tree will be. If the drain is more than 5 years old, then the diameter will be approximately 1 m, if more than 10 - 1.5 m.
Further actions are as follows:
- So that the lump does not crumble, the soil around the plum is well spilled with water (50 liters).
- They are ringed with a ditch 70 cm deep.
- The roots that go beyond the boundaries of the circle are chopped off with an ax. You can use a hacksaw. The ends of the roots are cleaned with a knife and processed with pitch.
- The plum is carefully pulled out of the ground by grasping the base of the trunk.
- An earthen clod with a plum is packed in burlap or a large box and taken to a new landing site.
If plum roots are large, dig until the tree is completely free of soil. Then put a log across the hole and try to pull the barrel out with the lever. Do not drag too much, act carefully. Try not to shake the ground from the roots.
Advice! If the plum is supposed to be transported, then to reduce the shaking, it should be placed in wet sawdust.
Is it possible to transplant a flowering plum in May
This fit is only permissible when necessary. You can transplant, but you should not count on fruits in the coming season. And if the roots are damaged, then in the next two years too.
Growing and caring for plums
In order for the plum to please with crops, you need before growing:
- not only choose the right varieties, but also choose the types of pollinators;
- determine the correct planting site, timing, choose a good seedling;
- observe all the necessary techniques and agricultural techniques for plum care.
The development of plums during cultivation is stimulated by top dressing. For the first 2-3 years after planting, the plum will have enough substances introduced during laying. Then fertilizers alternate: for a year the plum is fed with organic matter (infusions of mullein, bird droppings, slurry, compost, herbal "brilliant green"), for a year - with mineral salts (in April, before flowering, - 15–20 g of carbamide per 1 m², in May, after flowering, - 20 g of double superphosphate + 30 g of potassium sulfate per 1 m² of the trunk circle). From inorganic plums, phosphorus and potassium are needed (for root development and the formation of beautiful fruits).
How to water a plum
In spring, there is enough moisture in the soil, and the plum does not need watering. She needs it during the ripening period of the fruit, from June to August inclusive. Watering rate - 50 liters per 1 m². The wet care schedule is something like this:
- immediately after landing;
- during the formation of the ovary and the growth of shoots;
- a week before harvesting the fruits;
- after harvest (if the summer is very dry);
- in October (if autumn is warm and there is a need for it).
In this case, it is necessary to follow some rules of wet care:
- The plum is not watered just before the ripening of the fruit. From an excess of moisture, the peel will burst.
- Do not allow the soil to dry out, it is dangerous for the plum.Both ovaries and leaves will fall off, as a result of the plum, they may die.
- The best care in hot weather is watering at the root.
Pruning care is carried out in March, early spring. Trees are formed in tiers (3-3-2 skeletal branches). The distance between the branches is 15 cm, between the tiers - 50 cm.The height of the trunk is 40 cm.
The developed branches of young plums with a length of more than 45 cm are shortened by 1/4 of the length to stimulate the formation of shoots. During fruiting, the crown is rid of dry and thickening branches.
- If the growth is weak (10-15 cm), then rejuvenating pruning is carried out on the 5-year-old side branch.
- Every year, in early spring and autumn, plum shoots are removed, cutting them to the base of the root system.
Mulching when growing plums is carried out to maintain the quality of the soil. It prevents the formation of an earth crust and prevents moisture from evaporating quickly.
Mulch for plum care is organic (sawdust, shavings, cut grass, hay, needles, moss) and inorganic (newspapers and films). Its functions are as follows:
- insulates the entire underground part of the plant;
- reflects the sun's rays;
- prevents the soil from drying out, retaining moisture;
- prevents weeds from growing.
Plum, when grown, forms more adventitious roots if mulched. Before this type of care, top dressing is carried out.
Mistakes that beginner gardeners make
Even experienced gardeners make mistakes when planting and growing a plum tree, let alone beginners. There are a number of common mistakes that sometimes cannot be fixed, but can be prevented by knowing about them beforehand. It is worth paying attention to these errors.
- It is imprudent to buy trees for planting in the market from machines. You should not be tempted by the cheapness of the goods, quality goods are offered only in nurseries.
- The optimal planting time for plums is from 15 to 25 September. Do not give in to the general excitement and buy planting material at the end of August. It is useless to plant such a plant in a permanent place. He can only be saved in a ditch under a snow shelter or in a cold basement.
- Fertilize the plum clearly according to the instructions. She will not withstand mineral aggression when leaving.
- When planting plums, you should not put fresh manure or highly concentrated infusion of chicken droppings into the pit. Organic matter with such a low degree of decomposition, getting into the soil, gives off ammonia and a lot of heat. This depresses the trunk and burns the roots, making growing difficult.
- Do not water the plum often, but little by little. Such irrigation care forms an earthen crust and dries up the soil.
- Do not put a thick layer of mulch immediately after planting, otherwise the bark will underpin.
Planting a plum is a difficult process that promises results after 3 years of caring for it. If grown and cared for correctly, a plum that lives for an average of 30 years will delight 25 of them with a rich and growing harvest year after year.